There are many vision problems that we hear about in our daily lives, but how many do we actually know about? Like can you differentiate between them? For instance, if you know someone who has a problem in seeing clearly, you might assume everything is a blur to them. But, that does not happen in every case. There are different types of vision problems which have different causes and symptoms. Today, we will learn about one such problem which we call hyperopia. Let us dig in deeper about this and learn more.
Introduction to Hyperopia
A refractive error in which one can see the distant objects clearly but close objects appear blurry is known as Hyperopia. We also refer to it as farsightedness. Different people experience farsightedness differently. Moreover, some people, mostly in their youth, do not notice any vision problems. Additionally, people with significant farsightedness can experience a blurry vision for objects at any distance, near or far.
Cause of Hyperopia
The human eye is reliant on two significant parts for focusing on an image, they are the cornea and the crystalline lens. The former is the clear front surface of the eye. Whereas, the latter is a clear structure inside the eye which changes shape so as to focus on objects.
In an eye without refractive error, these focusing elements have a smooth curvature, similar to the surface of a smooth rubber ball, and bends incoming light to create a sharply focused image on the retina.
If the cornea is not smoothly curved, such as, in the case of people with farsightedness, the light does not properly bend or refract light properly. Thus, it results in a refractive error. Farsightedness takes place when light which enters into the eye starts focusing behind or beyond the retina, instead of on it.
Hyperopia can impact both children and adults and it can also be hereditary. Parents who are farsighted, their children may also have the same condition. An eye care professional (ECP) will be able to diagnose farsightedness during a routine eye exam. Usually, at-school vision screenings are not effectual in identifying farsightedness.
Types of Hyperopia
We classify Hyperopia in generally three types. We base them on their clinical appearance and they are:
- Simple Hyperopia
- Pathological Hyperopia
- Functional hyperopia
Symptoms of Hyperopia
There are many symptoms of Hyperopia which are easy to identify. The first one is blurred vision at night or later in the day. Further, having trouble when focusing on near objects is also a symptom. Next is aching eyes, eye strain, and headaches. Similarly, if you squint a lot and experience difficulty maintaining a clear focus, it can also be a symptom. Finally, eye fatigue and irritability or nervousness after sustained concentration are also symptoms.
Complications in Hyperopia
Far-sightedness can have rare complications like strabismus and amblyopia. At a young age, severe far-sightedness can result in the child having double vision because of over-focusing.
Hypermetropic patients with short axial length are at greater risk of developing primary angle-closure glaucoma. That is why doctors recommend routine gonioscopy and glaucoma evaluation for all hypermetropic adults.
In order to diagnose Hyperopia, doctors use either a retinoscope or automated refractor-objective refraction or trial lenses in a trial frame or a phoropter to get a subjective examination. Ancillary tests for abnormal structures and physiology can be prepared through a slit lamp test, which checks the cornea, conjunctiva, anterior chamber, and iris.
In severe cases of hyperopia from birth, the brain has difficulty in merging the images that each individual eye sees. The reason for this is that the images which the brain is receiving are always a blur.
A child suffering from severe hyperopia finds it extremely difficult to see objects in detail. Moreover, if the brain never learns to see objects in detail, then it means there is a great chance of one eye to become dominant.
The result will be that the brain will block the impulses of the non-dominant eye. On the contrary, the child that has myopia can see objects close to the eye in detail and does learn at an early age to see objects in detail.
Hyperopia and Its Correction
As Hyperopia does not allow the eye to focus on nearby objects, the lens can no longer presume the convex and curved shape lens that is required to view the nearby objects. So, the use of a converging lens can correct this vision problem.
It will refract light before it enters the eye and ultimately reduce the distance of the image. As it initializes the refraction process before the light reaches the eye, the image of nearby objects once again starts focusing upon the retinal surface.
You will usually find adults experiencing farsightedness and rarely young people. If this vision problem occurs among youth, the cause would rarely be linked to the inability of the lens to assume a short focal length.
In other words, the problem will most likely be related to an eyeball which is shortened. With the shortening of the eyeball, the retina lies closer than usual to the cornea and lens. This causes the creation of an image of close-by objects beyond the retina. Here also, we need a converging lens for the adults to correct it.
FAQ on Hyperopia
Question 1: What is the meaning of Hyperopia?
Answer 1: Hyperopia refers to the disorder of the vision where the eye focuses images behind the retina instead of on it. Thus, the person can see distant objects better than the near objects.
Question 2: State the different symptoms of Hyperopia.
Answer 2: There are many symptoms which one can experience, they are, eye strain, headaches and fuzzy vision. Further, difficulty in focusing on nearby objects is also a symptom. Finally, experiencing fatigue or headache after a detailed job like reading books and more.
Question 3: Do people suffering from Hyperopia require spectacles?
Answer 3: People who have Hyperopia may only need glasses when they are working or reading on the computer. It might be important to wear them through the entire duration. But, it really depends on the age of the person and the amount of Hyperopia they have.