Chemistry Formulas

Magnesium Chloride Formula

What is Magnesium Chloride?

This article deals with the magnesium chloride formula. Magnesium chloride refers to a chemical compound that is highly soluble in water. These salts happen to be typical ionic halides. Experts can extract hydrated magnesium chloride from brine or seawater. Magnesium chloride is an inorganic compound that consists of one magnesium ion and two chloride ions. Magnesium chloride comes in either anhydrous or hydrated crystal forms.

Magnesium Chloride Formula

Derivation of Magnesium Chloride Formula

The formula of magnesium chloride happens to be \(MgCl_{2}\). Furthermore, magnesium comes from group 2 of the periodic table. Moreover, it has two valence electrons and is reducing which forms \(Mg^{2+}\) ion. On the other hand, chlorine is a halogen and it comes from group 17 of the periodic table.

So, it has seven valence electrons and is oxidizing. Hence, it forms a \(Cl^{-}\) ion. The salt which forms between cation and anion, electrical neutrality is required.

\(Mg^{2+}\) + \(2Cl^{-}\) \(\rightarrow MgCl_{2}\)

Properties of Magnesium Chloride

Magnesium chloride is colorless and odorless in nature. Its physical description is that of very deliquescent flakes or crystals. The color ranges from thin white to gray. Furthermore, the boiling point of magnesium chloride is 1,412 °C. Moreover, the melting point of this compound takes place at 712 °C (rapid heating).

Magnesium chloride happens to be very soluble in water and freely soluble in ethanol. Its solubility in alcohol is 7.40 g/100 ml of alcohol at 20 °C. On the other hand, its solubility in water is 72.7 g/100 ml water at 100 °C. Also, the solubility of magnesium chloride in ethanol is 3.61 g/100 g at 0 °C and in methanol is 15.5 g/100 g at 0 °C.

The density of magnesium chloride is \(2.3 g/cm^{3}\). When this compound is heated to the point of decomposition, it emits fumes of hydrogen chloride that are toxic. The index of refraction of magnesium chloride is 1.675, 1.59.

Occurrence of Magnesium Chloride

The values of magnesium in natural seawater are between 1250 and 1350 mg/l. Furthermore, magnesium forms around 3.7% of the total seawater mineral content. Dead Sea minerals consist of a magnesium chloride ratio of 50.8% which is significantly high.

Calcium and carbonates are important for the growth of invertebrates, clams, corals, and coralline algae. Depletion of magnesium can take place by excessive limewater, alkalinity, mangrove plants and by going beyond natural calcium.

Applications of Magnesium Chloride

Magnesium chloride is an important substance for wind erosion mitigation, dust control, and soil stabilization. Furthermore, the application of magnesium chloride takes place on bare soil areas and roads.

Ziegler-Natta catalysts are important in producing polyolefins. These catalysts contain magnesium chloride as catalyst support. Above all, magnesium chloride supports and enhances the activity of the traditional catalyst. Furthermore, it facilitates the development of highly stereospecific catalysts for polypropylene production.

Experts make use of magnesium chloride for low-temperature de-icing of sidewalks, parking lots and highways. Highways can become quite dangerous due to icy conditions. In such a situation, magnesium chloride helps to prevent the ice bond, thereby allowing snow plows to clean the roads in an efficient manner.

Experts use magnesium chloride in three ways for pavement ice control: anti-icing, pre-wetting, and pretreating. Anti-icing is when maintenance professionals spread magnesium chloride on roads before a snowstorm to avoid snow sticking and ice formation.

Pre-wetting refers to spraying of a liquid formulation of magnesium chloride directly onto salt when it is being spread onto roadway pavement. Furthermore, in pre-wetting, wetting of the salt takes place to ensure that it sticks to the road. Finally, pre-treating happens when salt and magnesium chloride are mixed together before being loaded onto trucks and spread onto paved roads.

Solved Question For You

Question- What is magnesium chloride and its formula?

Answer- Magnesium chloride refers to a chemical inorganic compound that has one magnesium ion and two chloride ions. Furthermore, the formula of magnesium chloride happens to be \(MgCl_{2}\).

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