Inorganic chemistry deals with the behaviour and synthesis of inorganic and organometallic compounds. The field of inorganic chemistry covers chemical compounds that are not carbon-based. Inorganic chemistry has applications in many of the chemical industry, like catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture. In simple language, inorganic chemistry is opposite to that of Organic Chemistry. The substances which do not have carbon-hydrogen bonding are metals, salts, substances, etc.
On this planet, there exist about 100,000 inorganic compounds. Inorganic chemistry is the study of the behaviour of compounds along with their properties, their physical and chemical characteristics. The elements of the periodic table except for carbon and hydrogen are in the lists of inorganic compounds. Many of the elements very important like titanium, iron, nickel and copper. The transition metals form useful alloys, with each other and with other metallic elements.
Classification of Inorganic Compounds
The organic compounds that are classified under Inorganic chemistry are:
- Acids: Acids are compounds that dissolve in water and generate hydrogen ions \(H^+\). For example, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sulphuric acid, vinegar, etc. One example of the acidic reaction is: \(HCl + H_2O \rightarrow H^+ + Cl^-\)
- Bases: A base is a compound that produces hydroxyl ions when kept in water. For example, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonia, sodium hydroxide produces \(OH^-\) ions when dissolved in water. \(KOH + H_2O \rightarrow K^+ + OH^-\)
- Salts: Salt is a substance obtained as a result of the reaction between an acid and a base. The table salt of sodium hydroxide is one of the common examples of salts.
- Oxides: Oxides are compounds that consist of one oxygen atom.
Topics Related to Inorganic Chemistry
Organometallic Chemistry is an interdisciplinary science. It has grown at a pace during the last three to four decades. Organometallic compounds are in use as homogeneous catalysis agents in industries.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of an organometallic compound. Many compounds without these bonds are chemically identical, an alternative may be compounds containing metallic bonds of a covalent nature. It blends elements of inorganic chemistry with organic chemistry.
A transition element is partially filled with d-orbitals in its penultimate shell. These elements are useful as it enables us to recognize a transition element by its electronic configuration. This excludes zinc, cadmium and mercury from the transition elements as they do not have a partially filled d-orbital. They are considered transition elements as their properties are an extension of the properties of transition elements chemistry.
Coordination compounds had applications long before the establishment of inorganic chemistry. An investigation of structure and bonding in coordination chemistry started with the inquisitiveness of Tassaert.
The elements placed in group 13 to group 18 constitute the p-block. The properties of p block elements are greatly influenced by their atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. The absence of d–orbitals in the second period and the presence of d- or f-orbitals in heavier elements has an effect on the properties.
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) and Valence Bond Theory are some more topics related to organic chemistry.
Applications of Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic chemistry has many applications in various fields such as Biology, chemical, engineering, etc
- Inorganic chemistry is applied in the field of medicine and healthcare facilities.
- The most common application is the use of common salt in our daily lives.
- Baking soda is in use in the preparation of cakes and other foodstuffs.
- Many inorganic compounds are in use in ceramic industries.
- In the electrical field, it is applied to electric circuits as silicon etc.
FAQs on Inorganic Chemistry
Question 1: What are the physical properties of chemistry?
Answer: Physical properties are observed or measured without altering the composition of the matter. Physical properties are in use for the observation and description of matter. Physical properties include smell, shape, texture, colour, boiling point, density, solubility, melting point, polarity, and many others.
Question 2: What is the scope of inorganic chemistry?
Answer: Inorganic chemistry is the study of the inorganic or organometallic compound synthesis, structure, and behaviour. Inorganic chemistry is in use in every sector of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, paints and pigments, medicines, fuels, surfactants, coatings, and plastics.