Cell the Unit of Life

Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells – Similarities & Differences

Introduction to Similarity and Difference Between  Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

First of all, all the living things consist of cells.  In a living thing, two types of cells exist that are Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. Most noteworthy, there is similarity and difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

The organisms with single cell come under prokaryotes while animal and plant cells come under eukaryotes. The cells are responsible for all various activities of the living being. Cells are the structural as well as a working unit of life.


difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

Prokaryotic Cells

According to facts, these cells are the oldest cells. They do not have a proper nucleus. Also, organisms of single cell have these cells. These cells share four parts in common that are plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA and ribosomes.

Such a cell does not have any proper structure within it. Nevertheless, DNA exists in the central part of the cell.

Bacteria have a cell wall that acts as an extra layer of protection. This wall maintains shape and prevents the shortage of water.

Eukaryotic Cells

It is a popular fact that the evolution of these cells has taken place from the prokaryotes. These cells have a membrane nucleus. They have proper structures within them.

Also, they contain a definite nucleus. Such a cell is larger in size with a true nucleus. Also, a nuclear layer encloses the chromatin bodies. Both asexual and sexual division occurs in such cells.

Furthermore, these cells are larger in size than the other type. Hence, they show better structural organization and functional efficiency than prokaryotes. Their name means true nucleus.

Organelles have special cellular functions. This is similar to the special functions of the human body have.

Similarities between Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells

The following are the similarities between these two cells:

  • Firstly, both the cells have ribosomes that influence the process of protein synthesis.
  • In both types of cells, DNA exists that relates to genes.
  • The cell wall is present in both.
  • In both, there are four types of major molecules that are common to both.
  • The process of DNA copying is similar in both.
  • Some major metabolic pathways are common in both.
  • The process of photosynthesis is similar in both.
  • In both cells, there are twenty standard amino acids.
  • Genetic code is identical in both.
  • In both cells, ATP is the energy of source.

The Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell 

This difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote cell is very important. Both these cells vary in their roles, but both roles are very important. Following are the differences between these two cells:

  • Firstly, eukaryotes do have “true” nuclei containing the DNA. The prokaryotes, on the other hand, do not.
  • In Eukaryotes, the chloroplasts and mitochondria perform various metabolic processes. On the other hand, in Prokaryotes, similar processes occur across the cell membrane.
  • The formation of the cell walls of Prokaryotes is from a different molecule than Eukaryotes.
  • Prokaryotes have a higher metabolic rate.
  • Prokaryotes have a larger surface area.
  • Eukaryotic cells are larger in size.

Solved Question for You

Q. Many years ago what type of cells were the only form of life on Earth?

Ans: Millions of years ago prokaryotes were the only form of life on the earth. Afterwards, through the process of evolution, another type of cells came into existence.

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