Types of Soil and Suitable Crops

When we say dirt, we usually mean dust. But what does this feel like? Doesn’t it feel like soil? Why is soil always used for plantation? What exactly is soil? Let us find out below more below and know the types of soil.

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The soil is one of the important resources of our country, as the fertile soil helps us in producing many crops. This serves the food requirements not only within the country but also in other parts of the world. Although it is not the same at every place on the earth. The types of soil of a place are determined by climate, landscape, and vegetation of that place. Soil also depends on the time of its formation.

Different types of soil are characteristics of their color, texture and chemical properties. The soil has particles of different sizes. The relative amounts of the size of various particles in the soil determine the texture of the soil.

Soil Classification on the Based on Particles Size

1. Sandy soil

Sandy soil contains more than 60% sand and clay. It contains very little clay and silt, so it is porous. The size of soil particles in sandy soil is from 0.2mm to 2.0mm. The water building capacity of a sandy soil is very poor. Hence, there is a lot of air present in this type of soil.

  • Suitable Crops: Sandy soil is not good for plants. However, melon and coconut grow in sandy soil. If water is available for irrigation then crops such as maize, millets, barley can be grown in desert soil. Cactus also grows in this soil.

2. Clayey Soil

The clayey soil consists of very fine particles of clay. Its water holding capacity is very high. Wet clay soil is very sticky. It contains very little air. The size of soil particles in clay size is less than 0.2mm. Clayey soil is rich in organic matter.

Clayey Soil

  • Suitable Crops: It is also not good for many plants. It is only good for crops like paddy, which require a lot of water. Clay is used for making toys, pots, and many other purposes.

3. Loamy Soil

The loamy soil consists of sand, clay,, and silt. It also contains enough hummus. It has a good water-holding capacity. It has sufficient aeration. It is well suited for cultivation. Roots of plants get enough water, air, and space to grow.

  • Suitable Crops: Loamy soil is ideal for growing crops such as wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, pulses, and oilseeds. Vegetables also grow well in this soil.

Learn more about Formation of Soil and Soil Profile here.

Soil Classification on the Based on Color

1. Red soil

The red color of soil is due to the presence of iron oxide. It appears yellow when it contains less iron or more water. Red soil contains a mixture of clay and sand, antis not fertile. However, the soil can be fertile by adding manures and fertilizers.

  • Suitable Crops: It is suitable for growing groundnuts, pulses, millet, cotton and tobacco.

2. Black soil

Black soil is also known as black lava soil. This soil black in color. It is formed from lava rocks and is rich in clay.

  • Suitable Crops: It is ideal for growing crops such as cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, wheat, millets, and oilseeds.

Learn more about Soil Erosion here.

Question For You

Q. Write down the classification of soil.

Answer: On the basis of the color of soil there are two types of soil:

  • Red Soil
  • Black Soil

On the basis of texture:

  • Sandy Soil
  • Clayey Soil
  • Loamy Soil
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