Bismuth chloride may be a compound that’s used as a catalyst within the branch of chemistry. It’s a decent source of bismuth and is used to form other bismuth compounds. Bismuth(III) chloride is an inorganic salt that will be prepared by the reaction of bismuth with chlorine. Bismuth(III) chloride is additionally referred to as bismuth trichloride and trichlorobismuth. During this article, we’ll discuss the bismuth iii chloride formula, preparation, properties, and applications.
Bismuth(III) Chloride Formula
Bismuth chloride (or butter of bismuth) is a compound with the formula BiCl3. It’s a standard source of the Bi3+ ion. Within the gas phase and within the crystal, the species adopts a pyramidal structure, in unison with the VSEPR theory. The IUPAC name of bismuth(III) chloride is bismuth; trichloride.
- Molecular formula = BiCl3
- The Simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) = [Cl].[Cl].[Cl].[Bi+3]
The formula of bismuth(III) chloride is BiCl3. The Molecular mass of bismuth(III) chloride is 315.34 g/mol. The Boiling point of bismuth(III) chloride is 447℃ and therefore the freezing point is 230 to 232℃. Its appearance is pale yellow solid. Processes like alcoholysis, acetolysis, and hydrolysis, BiCl3 is used as a catalyst.
Allylation of secondary benzyl alcohols. It is used in the preparation of thiiranaes from oxiranes. The health hazards of BiCl3 are that it can cause burns on the skin when it reacts with water as hydrochloric acid is produced. Gaseous BiCl3 is pyramidal with a Cl-Bi-Cl angle of 97.5° and a bond length of 242 pm.
In the solid-state, each Bi atom has three near neighbours at 250 pm, two at 324 pm and three at a mean of 336 pm. This structure is similar to that of AsCl3, AsBr3, SbCl3, and SbBr3.
Preparation of Bismuth(III) Chloride
There are three methods used to prepare bismuth(III) chloride;
Allylation of secondary benzyl alcohols. it’s utilized in the preparation of thiiranaes from oxiranes. The health hazards of BiCl3 are that it can cause burns on the skin when it reacts with water as the acid is produced. Within the gas phase, BiCl3 is pyramidal with a Cl-Bi-Cl angle of 97.5° and a bond length of 242 pm.
Each Bi atom in solid-state has three near neighbours at 250 pm, two at 324 pm and three at a mean of 336 pm. This structure is analogous to that of AsCl3, AsBr3, SbCl3, and SbBr3.
It’s prepared by reacting bismuth metal with concentrated acid. Recrystallization should be done from conc. HCl to limit hydrolysis. Reacting bismuth metal with chlorine gas is in the water-free route. The crude bismuth trichloride is obtained then purified by subliming it under vacuum above 200 °C and it’s condensed on a chilly finger.
Bi2O3 + 6 HCl → 2BiCl3 + 3H2O
We synthesize Bismuth chloride by passing chlorine over bismuth or by dissolving bismuth metal in nitrohydrochloric acid, evaporating the mixture to provide BiCl32H2O, which may be distilled to make the anhydrous trichloride.
2Bi + 3Cl2 → 2BiCl3
The compound is often prepared by dissolving bismuth in concentrated nitric acid then adding solid common salt into this solution.
Bi + 6HNO3 → Bi(NO3)3 + 3H2O + 3NO2
Bi(NO3)3 + 3 NaCl → BiCl3 + 3 NaNO3
Solved Example for Bismuth III Chloride Formula
Q1. How to form acid from bismuth chloride? Determine by studying the Bismuth III Chloride Formula.
Solution: Bismuth chloride is hydrolyzed readily to bismuth oxychloride, BiOCl
Bi3+(aq) + Cl−(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ BiOCl (s) + 2H+(aq)
This reaction is often reversed by adding an acid, like acid. Bismuth chloride is an oxidant, being readily reduced to metallic bismuth by reducing agents.
Q2. Write different reactions to BiCl3.
Solution: Al + BiCl3 = AlCl3 + Bi
BiCl3 + 3NaOH = 3NaCl + Bi(OH)3
BiCl3 + 3NH3 + 3H2O = Bi(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl
H2O + BiCl3 = BiOCl + 2HCl
BiCl3 + 3KOH = Bi(OH)3 + 3KCl
BiCl3 + 3NaHCO3 = Bi(HCO3)3 + 3NaCl