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Public Finance and Budget

Education Oriented Programmes

When it comes to education-oriented programmes introduced by the Government, there are broadly two categories of programmes- school education and adult education. An example of this is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) which is implemented as India’s main Programme for universalizing elementary education. Its overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in education. In this article, we will see some education oriented programmes in detail.

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List of a few Education Oriented Programmes

1. Samagra Shiksha

The major objectives of the Scheme are:

  • Providing quality education and enhancing the learning outcomes of students,
  • Bridging Social and Gender Gaps in School Education,
  • Ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels of school education,
  • Ensuring minimum standards in schooling provisions,
  • Promoting Vocationalisation of education.

It also supports States in the implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. It also supports strengthening and up-gradation of SCERTs/State Institutes of Education and DIET as a nodal agency for teacher training.

The Goal SDG-4.1 states that “By 2030, ensure that all boys and girls complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.

Further, the SDG 4.5 states that “By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of Education and vocational training for the vulnerable. This should include persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.”

Education Oriented Programmes

2. Mid-Day Meal Scheme

The National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched on 15th August 1995.

This was launched with a view of enhancing enrolment, retention, and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children. It was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.

In 2001, MDMS became a cooked Mid Day Meal Scheme. Under this, every child in every Government and Government-aided primary school was to be served a prepared Mid Day Meal.

This midday meal has to be with a minimum content of 300 calories of energy and 8-12 gram protein per day for a minimum of 200 days.

mid day meal

The Scheme was further extended in 2002 to cover not only children studying in Government, Government aided and local body schools, but also children studying in Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative & Innovative Education (AIE) centers.

In September 2004, the Scheme got revised to provide for Central Assistance for Cooking cost @ Re 1 per child per school day to cover the cost of groceries.

For example, pulses, vegetables cooking oil, condiments, fuel and wages and remuneration payable to personnel or amount payable to the agency responsible for cooking.

Transport subsidy was also raised from the earlier maximum of Rs 50 per quintal to Rs. 100 per quintal for special category states and Rs 75 per quintal for other states.

It was ensured that central assistance was provided for the first time to management, monitoring, and evaluation of the scheme. This was done at 2% of the cost of foodgrains, transport subsidy, and cooking assistance.

There is a provision made for serving mid-day meal during summer vacation in drought-affected areas.

3. Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes (IDMI)

IDMI has been operationalized to augment Infrastructure in Private Aided/Unaided Minority Schools/Institutions in order to enhance the quality of education to minority children.

The salient features of IDMI scheme are:

  • The scheme facilitates the education of minorities by strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions. This helps to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities.
  • It covers the entire country but, preference is given to minority institutions. These are institutions like private aided/unaided schools located in districts, blocks and towns with a minority population of under 20%
  • The scheme encourages educational facilities for girls, children with special needs and those who are most deprived educationally amongst minorities
  • The scheme funds infrastructure development of private aided/unaided minority institutions to the extent of 75% and subject to a maximum of Rs. 50 lakhs per institution for better infrastructure. For example, additional classrooms, science/computer lab rooms, library rooms, toilets, drinking water facilities and hostel buildings for children especially for girls.

4. Saakshar Bharat

This is one of the major adult education-oriented programmes. Saakshar Bharat Programme goes beyond ‘3’ R’s (i.e. Reading, Writing & Arithmetic).

It also seeks to create awareness of social disparities and a person’s deprivation on the means for its amelioration and general well being.

This programme was formulated in 2009 with the objective of achieving 80% literacy level at the national level, by focusing on adult women literacy seeking.

This was done to reduce the gap between male and female literacy to not more than 10 percentage points.

It has four broader objectives, namely:

  • imparting functional literacy and numeracy to non-literates;
  • acquiring equivalency to formal educational system;
  • imparting relevant skill development programme;
  • and promote a learning society by providing opportunities for continuing education.

The principal target of the programme impacts the functional literacy to 70 million non-literate adults in the age group of 15 years and beyond.

  • This Includes coverage of 14 million Scheduled Castes(SCs),
  • 8 million Scheduled Tribes(STs),
  • 12 million minorities & 36 million others.
  • The overall coverage of women is aimed at 60 million.
  • 410 districts belonging to 27 States/UTs of the country were identified to be covered under Saakshar Bharat.

5. Jan Shikshan Sansthan

This is one of the adult education-oriented programmes in India: Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) provides vocational training to non-literate, neo-literate, as well as school dropouts by identifying skills as would have a market in the region of their establishment.

Practice Question for You

Q. Explain the Scope of Work of Jan Shikshan Sansthans.

The Scope of Work of Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) will include the following:

  • Develop/ Source appropriate curriculum and training modules covering vocational elements general awareness and life enrichment components.
  • Wherever possible, JSS are encouraged to undertake
  • Training equivalent to courses designed by the Directorate of Adult education, National Institute of Open Schooling and Director General Employment & Training.
  • Provide training to a pool of resource persons and master trainers for conducting training as also the availability of infrastructure and training – specific equipment.
  • Administer simple tests and award certificates
  • Network with employers and industries for trainees to get suitable placements.
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