Overview of India

India: An Overview

India is a vast country. Situated in southern Asia, it shares its border with China, Nepal, Bhutan to the north, Bangladesh and Burma/Myanmar to the north-east and Pakistan to the north-west. There exists a small disputed area with Pakistan which shares its border with Afghanistan.

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Overview of India


It is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south and the Arabian Sea to the west.  There is a Himalayan mountain range which is spread across most of northern India. Let’s take a look at the different aspects of India.


India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the second most populated. In the coming 25 years, it might overtake China to become the world’s most populated country. The country has an estimated population of 1.21 billion. 29 percent of the population living in urban areas. India has more than 2,000 ethnic groups.

States and Union Territories

India comprises of 29 states and seven Union Territories, with New Delhi as the capital. A number of cities in India have undergone name changes since independence in 1947. Major alterations over the past 20 years include Bombay switching to Mumbai, Madras became Chennai, Calcutta changing to Kolkata and Bangalore renamed as Bengaluru.


In India, Hindi is the official language and is spoken throughout the major cities. English is also widely spoken in urban areas. There are 21 other languages that are commonly spoken across the country.


The main religions in India are Hinduism (80.5 percent), Islam (13.4 percent), Christianity (2.3 percent), and Sikhism (1.9 percent). Other religious groups include Buddhists, Jains and Parsis (1.8 percent).

Literacy and Life expectancy

Literacy within the country is 61 percent and average life expectancy is 67.14 years old.


The official currency in India is Rupee. Our country is the world’s fourth-largest Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and has the 11th largest GDP (gross domestic product) in the world. In the year 2011, GDP was $1.843 trillion. A member of G20, India is also the fastest growing economies globally.

Major trade partners of India are China, the USA, the United Arab Emirates, the European Union, Russia and Japan. You can find natural resources such as iron ore, coal, mica, manganese, bauxite, chromite, limestone, barite, thorium, titanium ore, diamonds and crude oil in India. Outsourcing industries and information technology in India are growing at an alarming rate.

Geographical Features

Sprawling over a land of 3,287,263 sq Km, India has a vast and varied geography. The four geographical regions of the country are mountains in the north, the plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula.

The world’s highest mountain range is the Himalayas in the north. Kanchenjunga, the world’s third highest mountain at 8,586m (28,169 ft), sits on the India–Nepal border.


Tourism in India is a booming industry. 5.78 million foreign tourists visited the country in 2010. There are several tourists spots that attract the tourists.

Politics and Government

On 26 January 1950, the constitution of India came in existence. It comprises of 29 states and seven Union Territories. Our Indian constitution offers the citizens of India some basic freedoms.

India operates as a socialist, sovereign and a secular democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. Here, the president is head of the union of states, and a prime minister is head of the government. The prime minister runs the office with the help of the cabinet ministry.

Every state has an elected government with a governor as the head. Noteworthy, Union Territories are ruled directly by an administrator appointed by the president. Most of all, there are a number of political parties that fight together. Some of the main national political parties are the Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and the Communist Party of India-Marxist.

The judicial system of India began under British rule so the major process and procedure continue to resemble the British judicial system.


Geographical diversity and immensity create good variety in the weather condition. The climatic zones existing in India include:

  • Tropical monsoon in both south and west
  • Tropical savannah in both central and south
  • Arid in north-west
  • Semi-arid in north-west and south
  • Humid subtropical in north and north-east
  • Montane in far north and far north-east Himalayas

Most common of these is the tropical monsoon climate. The country depicts 4 seasons in a year:

  • Winter (December–early April)
  • Summer (April–June)
  • Monsoon (June–September)
  • Post-monsoon (October–December)


India experienced few terrorist activities in the recent past. The terrorist groups supposed to be behind this are still active. Jammu & Kashmir, the most disturbed states restrict travel in some areas.

India ranks tenth in the world’s highest reported crime rates. Instances of theft, robbery and murder have been seen in the past. Sexual offences towards the woman have also been noted.

Solved Examples for You

Question: Which is the largest democracy in the world?

Answer: India is the largest democracy in the world.

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One response to “India: States and Union Territories”

  1. Harshita says:

    Mam /sir everything was fine but i dont understand tha last topic requirment what was the need but overall it was very helpful to me ☺

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