Electric Charges and Fields

Charge Transfer

Charge transfer is the transfer of electrons that occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to a different such entity. For this, one object should have free electrons or a tendency to lose electrons and the other objects must have an affinity for the electron.

Charge transfer

                                                                                                  Charge transfer

What is a Charge Transfer?

It is an association of two or more molecules, during which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities. The source molecule is known as the electron donor because the charge is transferred from it and therefore the receiving species is the electron acceptor.

Methods of Charge Transfer

There are two methods through which charge transfer can happen between two bodies.

Charging by Conduction

Charging by Induction

Charge Transfer by Conduction

The conduction process involves charge transfer by touching a charged particle to a conductive material. In this manner, charges transfer from the charged material to the conductor. This method is beneficial for charging conductors.

Charge Transfer by conduction employing a negatively charged object

As we all know like charges repel one another and spread about as far as possible so as to scale back this repulsion. In doing so, the electrons (negatively charged) attend the acute of the perimeter of the sphere. If there’s a pathway to a different object where the electrons can go, the electrons tend to move from one object to a different one.

Charge Transfer by conduction employing a positively charged object

Let us now consider two objects, one is the positive-charged metal plate and the other is a neutral metal sphere. When the positive-charged metal plate comes in contact with a neutral metal sphere, the electrons from the neutral sphere moves towards the positive-charged metal plate. This process lasts until the charge within the metal plate being redistributed.

Charging By Induction

Induction charging is a method that charges an object without actually touching the thing to another charged object.

Charging by induction employing a negatively charged object

Let us consider two metal spheres A and B touching one another. Now let us take a charged up rubber balloon. Now as soon as we place the charging balloon near the spheres, electrons within the two-sphere system are going to be induced to move faraway from the balloon because of the repulsion between the electrons of the balloon and electrons of the spheres. Subsequently, the electrons from sphere A gets transfer to sphere B. Due to the movement of the electrons sphere, A  becomes positive in charge and sphere B negative in charge.

Charging by induction employing a positively charged object

Now, taking two spheres A and B, which are touching one another. If we place a charged up balloon near sphere A, the electrons from sphere B will move towards sphere A because of the attraction between opposite charges. Thus leaving the sphere B deficit of electrons. As a result, sphere A gets negatively charged and therefore the sphere B becomes positively charged.

FAQ about Charge Transfer

Q.1. What Occurs When the charged Plastic Rod is Positioned Near the Neutral Metal Plate?

Answer – The electrons present within the plate are resisted by the negative charges present within the rod. They drift apart from the rod, causing one side of the plate to show charged and therefore the other side to show charged.

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