DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA is a molecule made up of two polynucleotide chains. These chains are winded around each other to form a structure made by molecules of nucleic acid such as DNA. The structure is also known as Double Helix. This structure carries genetic instructions for the growth, reproductions, developments, functions of many organisms, and viruses. Learn Difference between Gene and Chromosome here.
DNA and RNA are nucleic acids and are essential for all forms of life. The complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids are also essential nucleic acids. Also, these acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules. Similar to DNA and RNA these nucleic acids are also essential in all forms of life.
Genes are contained by Chromosomes and are an important segment of DNA to contain code for specific proteins that functions in one or more type of cells in the body. Whereas Chromosomes are organized within the cells of a person. These cells contain the gene.
Both Gene and Chromosome play an important role to carry information. The Chromosomes have bunches of genes and these genes carry information to build the specific proteins.
Let us know more key differences between genes and chromosomes in detail.
Difference between Gene and Chromosome
|Definition||Genes are important segment of DNA which contains code of specific proteins.||Chromosomes are pack of cells which contain genes inside human body.|
|Location||It is located in the chromosome.||It is located as packed structure of DNA with proteins inside cells f a person.|
|Composition||Genes are composed of nucleic acids like DNA or RNA.||Chromosomes are composed of nucleic acids like RNA, DNA or Histones.|
|Visibility||It is not visible under the microscope.||It is visible under the microscope.|
|Core||Gene is a core on a chromosome.||A chromosome includes many genes.|
|Transformation||The transformation of genes are small. This leads to insertion and deletions.||The transformation of chromosomes are relatively large. This leads to the abnormalities such as duplication, deletions, rearrangements, inversion of genes.|
The human gene was first found in 2003. It is also known as Genome. It is an organism’s complete set of DNA. The main function is to carry protein code as information to built specific proteins.
Genome carries information that defines your characteristics passed to you by your parents. Each cell contains about 25000 to 30000 genomes in a human body. The bunch of genomes makes a Chromosome. Almost all genome and chromosomes are made in the same way, it is the DNA code that differs.
Genetic code is the code used to specify the amino acid sequence of the protein. The set of three nucleotides, known as genetic code or codons, each communicates to specific amino acids. The principle that three sequential bases of DNA code for each amino acid were demonstrated in 1961 using frame shift transformation.
A “start genetic code” and three “stop genetic codes” shows the beginning and the end of the protein CDS. The CDS is also known as the coding region of the protein. There are only 20 amino acids and almost 64 protein CDS; hence the code is useless and these genetic codes can specify the same amino acid.
Transcription helps in the production of an RNA molecule. This molecule is known as a messenger. It acts as an intermediate between the genome of DNA and the final protein product.
Transcription is defined as one of the few steps of DNA based genome expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. This process is performed by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase.
The translation is the process in which the protein-coding genome is transcribed to the RNA messenger or mRNA. This mRNA is the intermediate between the DNA genome and functional or final protein. This code is then translated to the functional or final protein. On the other side, the RNA coding genome is translated to the functional non-coding RNA.
A Chromosome is a molecule of DNA. It contains a bunch of genomes and is normally visible under the microscope. It is also said to be an organized pack of DNA. Chromosomes is always found in the nucleus of the cells.
Chromosome differs according to the different organisms. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the human body. In these pairs, 22 pairs are said to be the autosomes whereas, one pair is the sex chromosome, X and Y. Each parent gives one chromosome to each pair so that the babies get half of their chromosomes from their mother and another half from their father.