The genotype is a set of genes in the DNA which are responsible for the unique trait or characteristics. Whereas the phenotype is the physical appearance or characteristic of the organism. Thus, we can find the human genetic code with the help of their genotype. Organisms may look the same but still may not have the same genotype. One can determine the genotype by the biological tests. On the other hand, the phenotype is determined by an individual’s genotype and can be expressed as genes or by the visible traits. Such traits are hair color or type, eye color body shape, and height, and many such more. It will depend on the genotype but also influenced by the factors existing in the surrounding. This article will enhance the concept of the difference between Phenotype and Genotype.
What is the definition of a genotype?
In biology, a gene is a part of DNA that encodes some traits. The precise arrangement of the nucleotides, each composed of a phosphate group such as sugar and a base, in a gene can differ between copies of the same gene. Thus, a gene can exist in various forms across the organisms. These different forms are popular as alleles. Also, the exact, as well as a fixed position on the chromosome containing a particular gene, is termed as a locus.
A diploid organism may inherit two copies of the same allele or may inherit one copy of two different alleles from their parents. So, the individual inheriting two identical alleles is termed as homozygous at that locus. Whereas, if they possess two different alleles then their genotype will be classed as heterozygous for that locus. Alleles having the same gene are either autosomal dominant or recessive. The subsequent combination of alleles that are possessed by the individual for a specific gene is their genotype.
What is phenotype?
These are responsible for the organism’s observable characteristics. A key difference between phenotype and genotype is that, while genotype is inherited from the parents but the phenotype is not. Also, a phenotype is influenced by the genotype and many other factors like epigenetic modifications and environmental and lifestyle factors. Environmental factors that are influencing the phenotype include nutrition, temperature, humidity, and stress. Flamingos are a suitable example of how the environment influences the phenotype. As they are renowned for being vibrantly pink, but their natural color is white and the pink color is caused by pigments in the organisms in their diet.
Our genes can control the amount and type of melanin produced by us. But, exposure to UV light in sunny climates causes the darkening of existing melanin and hence it caused darker skin.
Difference between Phenotype and Genotype
The important difference between Phenotype and Genotype
|Meaning||It is the hereditary information of the organism in the form of the gene in the DNA, These remains the same throughout the life.||It is the characters of an organism that are visible by external effects.|
|Inheritance||These are inherited from the parent to the offspring.||These are not inherited from the parent.|
|Relationship||The same genotype can produce the same phenotype.||The same phenotype may or may not related to the same genotype.|
|Determination||Scientific methods like a polymerase chain reaction are useful in their determination.||Observing the organism can be helpful in the determination of these.|
|Presence||It presents inside the body as genetic material.||It presents as an external appearance.|
|Genes||Genes affect them.||These are affected by genotype as well as by the environmental conditions.|
After seeing the difference between Phenotype and Genotype, let us have some examples:
- Some examples of genotype are as follows:
Eye color – A gene encodes eye color. In this case, the allele is either brown, or blue, with from the mother, and the other from the father.
Some other examples are Hair Color, Height, and Shoe size.
- Examples of phenotypes include height, wing length, and hair color. It also includes observable characteristics that are measurable in the laboratory, such as levels of hormones or blood cells.
FAQs on Genotype and Phenotype:
Q.1: Give the names of the different types of genotypes?
Answer: The different types of genotypes are homozygous recessive (pp), homozygous dominant (PP), and heterozygous (Pp). The homozygous dominant and the heterozygous genotypes both will show the same phenotypes.
Q.2: Alleles are different from the genotypes. How?
Answer: Alleles are the variants of the genes, whereas the set of genes are responsible for certain traits. These traits are Genotypes. Still, both are determining the biological traits and copies might not be the same sometime.
Q.3: Is there any relation between genotype and phenotype possible?
Answer: These two are the different concepts, but still are closely related to each other. Because Phenotype refers to the physical and observable traits in an organism. These are the outcome of the expression of the genes of an individual. Also, the genotype determines the phenotype of an individual.