Plants are categorized in many different ways. The flowering plants vs non-flowering plants are one of the most commonly used methods. The flowering plants include most of the green plants around us. These plants are further divided into two types which include monocots (monocotyledons) and dicots (dicotyledons). Let us understand the differences between monocot and dicot stem.
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
Monocotyledons or monocots are the plants that consist of the seeds having only one embryonic leaf or cotyledon. These plants are commonly referred to as flowering plants or angiosperms. Wheat, grass, ginger, and onions, are the best examples of Monocotyledons.
Dicotyledons or dicots are the plants that consist of the seeds having two embryonic leaves or cotyledon. These plants are generally referred to the flowering plants or angiosperms. All legumes such as pea, peanuts, beans, and lentils, are examples of dicotyledons. These plants consist of approximately 1.0 – 1.5 lakhs species.
The shoot system is the necessary aerial part of the plant, which holds up branches, flowers, leaves, and fruits. It is also responsible for the conduction of minerals nutrients, water, and gases within the plant.
Differences Between Monocot and Dicot Stem
Let us understand the key differences between monocot and dicot stem
|Character||Monocot Stem||Dicot Stem|
|Definition||Monocot stems are a circular-shaped stem with lateral branches and are bounded with a layer of the dermis.||Dicot stems have a well-defined epidermis with cuticle, a layer of dermis along with multicellular stem hair.|
|Epidermal hair||In this multicellular epidermal hair are present over the epidermis.||In this the epidermal hair is absent.|
|Silica||No silica occurs over the epidermis in Monocot.||Usually, silica occurs over the epidermis in Dicot.|
|Ground Tissue||The ground tissue is differentiated into stelar and extra stelar tissues.||The ground tissue is not differentiated into stelar and extra stelar tissues.|
|Endodermis||The endodermis is present in the Monocot Stem.||The endodermis is absent in the Dicot Stem.|
|The monocot stem is usually hollow at the center.||The dicot stem is solid in most of the cases.|
|Vascular Bundles||Vascular bundles are present in a limited number, usually 4 to 8.||Vascular bundles are numerous in Dicot.|
|Vascular bundles arrangement||Vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one pr two broken rings. They are conjoint, collateral, and open.||Vascular bundles are arranged scattered in the ground tissue. They are conjoint, collateral, and closed.|
|Elements||The vascular bundle consists of many protoxylem and metaxylem elements.||The vascular bundle consists of only two metaxylem elements.|
|Xylem element||The xylem elements are polygonal.||The xylem elements are circular.|
|Bundle cap||The bundle cap is present.||The bundle cap is absent.|
|Pericycle||The pericycle is present.||The pericycle is absent.|
|Phloem parenchyma||Phloem parenchyma is present.||Phloem parenchyma is absent.|
|Phloem fiber||Phloem fiber is present.||Phloem fiber is absent.|
|Pith||Pith is present. Pith is well-developed.||Pith is absent. Pith is not as well-developed in monocots (usually absent in most)|
|Medullary rays||Medullary rays are present.||Medullary rays are absent.|
|Secondary thickness||It undergoes secondary thickness.||there is no secondary thickness.|
|Hypodermis||The hypodermis is made of sclerenchyma fibers, and they are not green.||The hypodermis is formed of collenchyma fibers which are often green in color.|
|Trichomes||The monocot stems do not have trichomes.||The dicot stems have trichomes.|
|Vascular tissues||Vascular tissues remain the same throughout the plant’s life cycle.||Usually, vascular tissues stop functioning when they get old. New vascular tissues replace the old ones.|
|Vessels||Vessels are rounded or oval and are arranged in a Y-shaped formation.||Vessels are of a polygonal shape and are arranged in rows or chains.|
Monocot stems are surrounded by a layer of the dermis. It is circular with the lateral branches. It is generally a composition of the cells coated with a wax-like substance known as cutin. These cells are well organized, hard, and rectangular. The internal structure of a monocot stem includes a ground tissue, epidermis, a well-developed epidermis, and numerous dispersed vascular bundles. Onions, lilies, tulips, and garlic are a few of the best examples of monocot stems.
Dicot stems are surrounded with a layer of dermis along with multicellular stem hair. It consists of a well-defined epidermis with a cuticle. The internal structure of a dicot stem includes the epidermis, cortex endodermis, pericycle, hypodermis, vascular strand, and pith. Sunflower and Cucurbita are a few of the best examples of dicot stems.
The main differences usually found between dicots and monocots depend on the four aspects which include stems, flowers, leaves, and roots.