Lactic acid is a mono hydroxyl acid. Lactic acid is an optical compound. Other names of lactic acid are Alpha-hydroxy propionic acid, 2 hydroxy propionic acids. Lactic acid is the main constituent of milk that has gone so are and hence its name lactose milk.
Lactic acid is a colourless, crystalline solid which have a sore taste. It is soluble in water, alcohol and ether. The lactic acid molecule contains a secondary alcohols group and a carboxyl group and gives reactions of both. It is useful as a food additive and in many industrial applications. Its synonyms are I 270 when used as a reserve active, electronic acid, milk acid.
History of Lactic Acid
It was isolated and identified by Scheele as the principal acid in sour milk in 1780. Lactic acid was first discovered as a fermented product by Blondeau in 1847. It was investigated by Pasteur as one of his first microbiological problems. Schultze demonstrated the presence of lactic acid bacteria in yeast cultures of distilleries.
Dell bug was endeavouring to determine the most favourable temperature of lactic acid fermentation is in distilleries. He conducted that relatively high temperature favoured high yield of lactic acid. In 2006 global production of lactic acid reached 270 5000 tons with an average angle growth of 10%. It all started around 1920, with a German biochemist named is to meter off. He helped figure out many of the steps of glycolysis, which is the series of chemical reaction that cells used to make hydroxyl from glucose or sugar.
Meyerhof took frog legs and he gave them electric shocks, making them jump and twist. But, after a while, they stop jumping, Meyer hof that the next word full of lactic acid or more accurately lactate, which is lactic acid minus a proton. He And another scientist, Archibald hill, Correctly figured out the step of glycolysis That led to higher levels of lactate in the muscles.
Production of Lactic Acid in the Body
Here we will discuss the production of lactic acid in the body. Under the process of glycolysis the sugar, glucose turns into pyruvate. Now the pyruvate jump into the mitochondria called the try carboxylic acid cycle also known as the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain is uses oxygen to create a whole bunch of energy.
Because this is in an oxidative environment hence there’s a lot of oxygen It’s aerobic that if for example when you go into the gym or you are doing some parents and you require more energy then you have oxygen available to make that energy what ends up happening is that pyruvate seems to back up that oxygen we don’t have enough of it we can’t make enough energy pyruvate backup and turns into something called lactic acid.
Lactic acid releases hydrogen iron and turns into lactate. In the fermentation of lactic acid, it is reduced in the form of calcium lactate, because we use the calcium hydroxide as a controlling agent for pH in the fermentation media and lactic acid is usually converted to calcium lactate.
Fermentation of Lactic Acid
In the fermentation of lactic acid, glucose molecule gets converts into lactate or lactic acid. It is the lactic acid when it loses one proton it became lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid that’s why we can use both the term lifted as less lactic acid and its not only a glucose molecule that precedes fermentation process but sugar molecule that can be lactose or fructose also gives lactic acid through lactic acid fermentation.
The whole process starts from the glucose molecule which undergoes glycolysis. In the glycolysis, the glucose molecule combined with the equines ( NAD+) and the 2 ADP molecules combines with the 2 inorganic phosphates. It gives pyruvate molecule, 2 protons, 2 ATP’s and 2 water molecule. This is the yield of glycolysis reaction. Now The pyruvate molecule dehydrogenises in the absence of oxygen and gives lactic acid or lactate.
Lactic acid Bacteria
Lactic acid bacteria’s are a diverse group of bacteria capable of lactic acid production. It exists in cheese yoghurt or decomposing plant. It is gram-positive and non-sporulating and has the ability to produce lactic acid as a major metabolic end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. They are non-respiratory but tolerate aerated environments and can survive high acid and high ethanol concentrations. The lactobacillus can be divided into different genera such as Lactobacillus, Leucinostoc, Pediococcus etc.
Uses of Lactic Acid
Lactic acid is an organic compound which is a colourless to yellowish syrup liquid. Its uses are as follows:
- Lactic acid is useful as a feed prokaryotic.
- Lactic acid is useful in the dairy industry not only in making yoghurt but in making.
- It is important in the pharmaceutics industry involving in the manufacturing of ink.
- It is in use in tanning leather
- Also, it is useful in making a square kid.
- Lactic acid is in use as a flavouring agent curing agent.
- It is useful as an acidulant in beverages and candies.
- Ethyl and Butyl lactates are in use as plasticisers.
- Calcium and iron lactates are in use in medicines.
- It is also in use as a mordant.
FAQs about Lactic Acid
Q.1. What is the importance of lactic acid bacteria addition to yeast?
Answer – Acid dough contains lactic and bacteria and East. Lab addition is due to the following reasons-
- It acts as a preservative.
- Most East utilise lactic acid as a C- source.
- The alkalinity of the medium causes most of the contamination of yeast. To avoid undesirable bacteria grow like putrefying bacteria and to prevent contamination in the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria are useful.
Q.2. What are the main types of Lactic acid bacteria?
Answer – Lactic acid bacteria are classified into 2 types one is Homofermentative fermentative bacteria and the second is heterofermentative bacteria. The Homofermentative bacteria convert about 95% of a fermentable exorcist to lactic acid. It follows the Embden – Meyerhof pathway. Heterofermentative bacteria formed from sugar or other compound compounds include ethyl alcohol, acetic, formic acid and carbon dioxide. It follows the pentose phosphate pathway.
Q.3. Write a brief history of lactic acidosis.
Answer – Lactic acidosis is the mechanism of chronic disease. In 1843 a researcher name Scheer found It in a body of a woman who had just recently died and she had sepsis after giving birth. In 1858 Researcher named Folwarczny Found it in a live patient and in 1878 a researcher named Solomon Found lactic acid in patients and life patients with leukaemia, pernicious, anaemia etc.
Q.4. What is whey?
Answer- Whey is a cheap raw material which contains 4.6% lactose and 15% sugar. The cream is removed from the milk and casein is precipitated from the use of hydrochloric acid. The whey, which is the product after the separation of the cream and casein from the milk, contains albumin approximately 4.6% lactose and vitamin G, mineral, salt and water. The medium serves as the nutrient substrates in the manufacture of lactic acid.