Now let us study the Present tense. When we an event is being described in real time, i.e. happening at that very moment, we call it the present tense. Let us learn more about the Present Tense and its types.
In English Grammar, the Present Tense is used to talk about something that is going on now(currently) or that is true now and at any time. Present Tense is of four types:
- Simple Present Tense
- Present Continuous Tense
- Present Perfect Tense
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Present Tense
The simple present tense uses the same verb form as the root form of the verb. We use the simple present tense in the following conditions:
- To show a fact or something that is always true
- For activities that are done daily -regularly or habitually
- To express thoughts, feelings, opinions and beliefs
- For an action or event that is planned to happen in the future
- Used with a selected few adverbs to indicate something that happens rarely
- Used in news, reported speech such as in sports commentaries, a narration of books and stories etc
- It is also used with schedules, plans and programmes
- It is also used to give instructions.
Learn more about Past Tense here in detail.
Formulating a Simple Present Tense
When the singular form of the subject or a singular pronoun is used, the verb is used in the simple present tense by adding a ‘-s’ to it. Let us look at some examples,
- He goes to the library often.
- When does the flight to Seychelles depart from Mumbai airport?
- I always wake up at 6 am.
- We agree with most of your plan.
- I like chocolates.
Present Continuous Tense
This tense is used to describe a continued or ongoing action at the present time. It expresses an action which is in progress at the time of speaking and has not yet been completed. The Present Continuous Tense is, therefore, used in the following conditions:
- As mentioned above, it is used for an action that is occurring at the time of speaking
- When an action in the future is mentioned without specifying when it will occur
- When we talk about a planned or arranged event or action that is set to take place at a specified time in the future.
- It is also used in conditions where the action or event is occurring but not necessarily while we speak
- It is used in a changing situation
- With adverbs such as ‘always’ which describe an action that happens frequently.
Formulating the Present Continuous Tense
It is formed from the present tense of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ and the present participle of the verb ‘-ing’. Examples are,
- The noise is beginning to give me a headache.
- I am complaining to his mother about him.
- Why aren’t you doing your homework, Ravi?
Learn more about Future Tense here in detail.
Present Perfect Tense
The Present Perfect Tense is used in case of repeated actions, in those actions where the time is not important, and actions that began in the past but are not finished yet and will probably finish in the present as we speak. The Present Perfect Tense can be used in the following scenarios:
- It is commonly used in actions or events that began in the past and have continued into the present
- They are used to show an action that has been completed
- To indicate a time period that has not yet finished
- This tense is often used with phrases that begin with “This is the first” or “second time” and so on.
- Is used to describe or express an action that is repeated in the past
- Used to indicate or describe actions that have been completed in the recent past
Formulating the Present Perfect Tense
To form the present perfect tense, we need to use the simple present tense of the auxiliary verb ‘have’ or ‘has’ based on whether the noun being referred to is plural or singular. The auxiliary verb is then followed by the past participle of the verb. It can also be written as: have/has + past participle. Let us see some examples,
- We have known each other for a very long time.
- There have been many contenders for this role.
- Has there ever been a war during your lifetime?
- I have just eaten.
- We have had the same car for 8 years.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
This tense is generally used to describe or indicate an event that is going on at this moment. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used in the following conditions:
- It is used to describe an event that began in the past and is continuing into the future
- An activity or event that began in the past and is now over(just recently completed or over)
- It is also used when there is no mention of time.
Learn more about Uses of Tenses here in detail with examples.
Formulating the Present Perfect Continuous Tense
The present perfect continuous tense is made up of two parts:
- The present perfect tense of the verb ‘to be’: ‘have been’ or ‘has been’ and
- The present participle of the main verb ‘-ing.
Some examples of present perfect continuous tense are,
- My hands are very dirty as I have been painting the walls.
- They have been trying to contact her.
- I have been working for them for the last seven months.
- The party has been going on all night.
Solved Example for You
Q: We ________in Chennai for six months.
(a) Had been living (b) Living
(c) Have been living (d) Are living
Sol. (c) have been living. Since the sentence talks about only one event, option (a) had been living is incorrect as it is used in past perfect continuous scenarios. Option (b) and (d) are both incorrect as they are not present perfect continuous as the sentence is. Option (c) is the correct answer as it is Present Perfect Continuous Tense.