If you have ever opened an account in any of the banks in India, then you must be aware of the fact that there are many kinds of deals and features that the banks offer us. These deals are meant to attract different kinds of customers with different needs. In the following section, we will see what these different deals are. We will also know which types of deposit and accounts are suitable for what people. Let us see more!
Types Of Deposit and Accounts
Money and banking are part of everyday life. Banks offer all sorts of financial products to help you manage your money on a day-to-day basis. The bank is such a place where once we deposit money, it remains safe and also earns interest over some time. This is known as the deposit and to each deposit, the bank assigns a unique identity which is known as the account. Each deposit corresponds to a unique account and vice versa.
Sometimes we use numbers to uniquely identify an account. This is what we call the account number. It may also be a combination of alphanumeric letters. Bank deposits serve different purposes for different people. Some people cannot save regularly. They deposit money in the bank only when they have extra income. The purpose of deposit then is to keep money safe for future needs. Some may want to deposit money in a bank for as long as possible to earn interest or to accumulate savings with interest so as to buy a flat, or to meet hospital expenses in old age, etc. Some, mostly businessmen, deposit all their income from sales in a bank account and pay all business expenses out of the deposits.
Types of Deposits
On the basis of purpose they serve, bank deposit accounts may be classified as follows:
- Savings Bank Account
- Current Deposit Account
- Fixed Deposit Account
- Recurring Deposit Account
Let us see all of these in detail now!
Savings Bank Account
As the name suggests this type of account is suitable for people who have a definite income and are looking to save money. For example, the people who get salaries or the people who work as laborers. This type of account can be opened with a minimum initial deposit that varies from bank to bank. Money can be deposited at any time in this account.
Withdrawals can be made either by signing a withdrawal form or by issuing a cheque or by using an ATM card. Normally banks put some restriction on the number of withdrawal from this account. Interest is allowed on the balance of deposit in the account. The rate of interest on savings bank account varies from bank to bank and also changes from time to time. A minimum balance has to be maintained in the account as prescribed by the bank.
Browse more Topics Under Banks
- Major Functions Of Banks
- Introduction to Banks
- Reserve Bank of India
- Departments of RBI
- Functioning of RBI
- Security Features of Rupee
- Capital Adequacy Ratio
- Types Of Deposit & Accounts
- Major Security Issues & Challenges
- Debit Cards, Credit Cards & Microcredit
- Banks Practice Questions
Current Deposit Account
Big businessmen, companies, and institutions such as schools, colleges, and hospitals have to make payment through their bank accounts. Since there are restrictions on the number of withdrawals from a savings bank account, that type of account is not suitable for them. They need to have an account from which withdrawal can be made any number of times.
Banks open a current account for them. Like a savings bank account, this account also requires a certain minimum amount of deposit while opening the account. On this deposit, the bank does not pay any interest on the balances. Rather the account holder pays a certain amount each year as an operational charge.
These accounts also have what we call the overdraft facility. For the convenience of the accountholders banks also allow withdrawal of amounts in excess of the balance of the deposit. This facility is known as an overdraft facility. It is allowed to some specific customers and up to a certain limit subject to previous agreement with the bank concerned.
Fixed Deposit Account
Some bank customers may like to put away money for a longer time. Such deposits offer a higher interest rate. If money is deposited in a savings bank account, banks allow a lower rate of interest. Therefore, money is deposited in a fixed deposit account to earn interest at a higher rate.
This type of deposit account allows the deposit to be made of an amount for a specified period. This period of deposit may range from 15 days to three years or more during which no withdrawal is allowed. However, on request, the depositor can encash the amount before its maturity. In that case, banks give lower interest than what was agreed upon. The interest on a fixed deposit account can be withdrawn at certain intervals of time. At the end of the period, the deposit may be withdrawn or renewed for a further period. Banks also grant a loan on the security of the fixed deposit receipt.
Recurring Deposit Account
While opening the account a person has to agree to deposit a fixed amount once in a month for a certain period. The total deposit along with the interest therein is payable on maturity. However, the depositor can also be allowed to close the account before its maturity and get back the money along with the interest till that period.
The account can be opened by a person individually, or jointly with another, or by the guardian in the name of a minor. The rate of interest allowed on the deposits is higher than that on a savings bank deposit but lower than the rate allowed on a fixed deposit for the same period.
The Recurring Deposit Accounts may be of the following types:
- Home Safe Account or Money Box Scheme: For regular savings, the bank provides a safe or box (Gullak) to the depositor. The safe or box cannot be opened by the depositor, who can put money in it regularly, which is collected by the bank’s representative at intervals and the amount is credited to the depositor’s account. The deposits carry a nominal rate of interest.
- Cumulative-cum-Sickness deposit Account: A certain fixed sum is deposited at regular intervals in this account. The accumulated deposits over time along with interest can be used for payment of medical expenses, hospital charges, etc.
- Home Construction deposit Scheme/Saving Account: In this account, we can deposit the money regularly either for the purchase or construction of a flat or house in future. The rate of interest offered on the deposit, in this case, is relatively higher than in other recurring deposit accounts.
Q 1: Which of the following statements is not correct?
A) Deposits made in savings bank account serve to meet present as well as future needs.
B) A fixed amount is required to be deposited in a Fixed Deposit Account every month.
C) The rate of interest on deposits made in a Recurring Deposit Account is relatively higher than on savings bank deposits.
D) Home Construction Saving Deposit Account is a type of recurring deposit account.
Ans: B) A fixed amount is required to be deposited in a Fixed Deposit Account every month.