As you know, plant and animal cells have a lot of differences as well as similarities. They both can be differentiated on the basis of the presence of organelles in them. However, both of them are eukaryotic cells. Because both plants and animals have eukaryotic cells, their cell structures are quite similar. Each eukaryotic cell is made up of a plasma membrane, a nucleus, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and mitochondria. Nonetheless, there is quite a lot of difference between plant cell and animal cell. The most distinguishing components between them are wall vacuoles, chloroplasts, size and more. Thus, this article aims to give you an idea of their definition, differences and more details to get a better understanding.
Definition of Plant Cell
Kingdom Plantae majorly comprises of multi-cellular eukaryotes living things that are autotrophic by nature. Moreover. The organelles in plant cells such as chloroplast, cell wall, vacuole, helps in differentiating them from animals cells. While there is a huge amount of plant species that have not been discovered yet, the ones identified are around 400,000 in number.
Generally, the range of plant cells will vary from 10-100 µm in size. Plant cells are responsible for performing the function of photosynthesis. As a result, we refer to green plants as autotrophs. It is done due to the presence of chlorophyll in the chloroplast of the plant cells. Cellulose makes up the cell wall that offers support and rigidity to the cells.
Functions of Plant Cell
Plant cells are the fundamental building blocks of plant life, performing all of the processes required for survival. Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into food. It occurs in the cell’s chloroplasts. The following are some examples of specialised plant cells:
- Collenchyma Cells – Collenchyma cells are made up of elongated living cells with irregular main thick walls. They can change shape and grow in the same way that plants do. The fact is that collenchyma is exceedingly plastic i.e. the cells can stretch and so respond to greater organ growth—is a significant trait.
- Sclerenchyma Cells – The cells of the sclerenchyma are stiffer. They are the primary sustaining cells in plant regions that have stopped developing. Mature sclerenchyma cells are often dead cells with thickened secondary walls. They also have a high cellulose content (60–80%) and serve the purpose of giving structural support to plants.
- Parenchyma Cells – The simple permanent ground tissues that make up the majority of plant tissues, such as the soft component of leaves, fruit pulp, and other plant organs, are known as parenchyma. They are present in leaves and perform photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and metabolic processes. They also store chemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins and aid in plant healing.
- Xylem Cells – This tissue aids in the transfer of dissolved chemicals and water throughout the plant. Tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma, and xylem fibres are examples of xylem components. The xylem transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves of the plant.
- Phloem Cells – It delivers nutrients produced by photosynthesis to all areas of the plant. Sugars and amino acids dissolved in water are transported by phloem. The phloem transports nourishment from the leaves to the roots.
Definition of Animal Cell
The Kingdom Animalia takes up the three-fourth part of all the species on the planet earth. The human body is made up of 1014 cells, and their size varies from 10-30 µm in diameter. Animal cells do not consist of the cell wall and chloroplast and that mainly differentiates them from the plant cells. The primary distinction between animal and plant cells is that animal cells cannot produce their own nutrition. The nucleus, cell membrane, and cytoplasm are the three primary components of most animal cells.
There’s a belief that the cell walls disappeared with the evolution which resulted in the development of animal cells with the more advanced cells, tissues, and organs that are more specified in their operation. Thus, nerves and muscles assist in locomotion, mobility and performing other functions as well.
Functions of Animal Cell
All of the cells work together in harmony to help the organism survive. The collection of comparable tissues will form the various organs of the body such as the heart, lungs, and so on, and these organs will collaborate to make the organ system such as the neurological system, digestive system, circulatory system, and so on. A few types of animal cells are:
- Skin Cells – These cells can be found in the dermal and epidermal layers of the skin. These cells are effective at preventing water loss and providing a barrier to the external environment.
- Bone Cells – Bone cells are responsible for the formation of an animal’s skeleton and bones. Bone cells communicate with one another to maintain balance and, ultimately, control bone structure and function. They also assist with body movement.
- Muscle Cells – It aids in the protection of the body’s delicate organs. They can help to organise the movement of your limbs and tissues when they are clustered together.
- Blood Cells – These cells serve as the body’s transporters, carrying hormones and nutrients. They transport oxygen throughout the body via the bloodstream.
- Nerve Cells – These are specialised cells that are programmed to transmit impulses or information. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, are brain cells that send and receive messages. The cell body, which includes the nucleus, a primary branching fibre (axon), and numerous smaller branching fibres comprise each nerve cell (dendrites).
Difference between Plant Cell And Animal Cell
What is the Difference between Plant Cell And Animal Cell
|Basis of Comparison
|They are eukaryotic cells having a true nucleus along with specialized structures known as organelles which perform specific functions.
|It is a type of eukaryotic cell that lacks a cell wall and has a true, membrane-bound nucleus along with other cellular organelles.
|Fixed-size which is generally larger. The normal range is from 10-100 micrometres.
|Irregular and small in size. Ranges from 10-30 micrometres.
|They have a fixed and rigid shape – generally rectangular or cubical.
|They have round and irregular shapes.
|Has a cell wall composed of the cell membrane and cellulose.
|Does not have a cell wall.
|Rigid wall cell and plasma membrane
|Flexible and thin plasma membrane
|Present in plant cells
|Not present in animal cells
|Lies on one side
|Lies in the cell wall’s centre
|Present in a small number
|Present in a large number
|May be present
|Generally large and provide structural support. One huge vacuole.
|Vacuoles are small in size. Many vacuoles.
|Plant cells can synthesize their own nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins coenzymes that are required by the plant.
|Animal cells cannot synthesize their own nutrients.
|Present as starch
|Present as complex carbohydrates and glycogen
More details about Plant Cell
There are different types of plant cells. They are parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, water-conducting cells, and sieve-tube members. Parenchyma store organic products whereas collenchyma offer structural support to the cell.
Sclerenchym’s cell wall is embedded with lignin. Water Conducting Cells helps in transmitting water from roots to other parts of the plants. Finally, Sieve Tube Members helps in transporting food and nutrients.
More details about Animal Cell
Animal cells are also of different types. They are skin cells, bone cells, muscle cells, blood cells and nerve cells. Firstly, skin cell helps in protecting the internal parts and prevents the loss of water. After that, bone cells make bones and skeleton of animals and offer structural support and help in movement.
Further, muscle cells help in protecting the delicate organs of the body. Moreover, blood cells carry hormones and nutrients in the body. Finally, we have nerve cells that send impulses or information to help the body connect and perform actions.
FAQs about Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal Cell
Question 1: What is the difference between plant cells and animal cells in terms of plastids?
Answer 1: Plastids are present in plant cells whereas they are absent in animal cells.
Question 2: What are blood cells in animal cells?
Answer 2: Blood cells work as the transporter in the body that carries hormones and nutrients. Mainly, the blood carries oxygen to various tissues of the body and also aids in taking back the carbon dioxide from them.
Question 3: Why are plant cells typically greater in size than animal cells?
Answer 3: Plant cells have a big central vacuole that takes up the majority of the volume and expands the cell. In most animal cells, this vacuole is either found to be small in size or are absent.
Question 4: Name some cell organelles that are only found in animal cells.
Answer 4: Lysosomes and centrosomes are found in animal cells but are lacking in plant cells.
Question 5. What are the cell organelles that are similar in both the plant cell and animal cell?
Answer 5. Plant and animal cells are structurally similar since they are both eukaryotic cells. They both have membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and peroxisomes. Both have membranes, cytosol, and cytoskeletal components that are comparable.