The Fundamental Unit of Life

Cell Organelle

You already know that all living organisms are made up of cells, which are the tiniest units. But do you know that cells are made up of even smaller objects? Each of these objects is called a cell organelle. Do you want to know what these are and what their functions are? Let’s learn about them below.

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Cell Organelle

A small organ-like structure present inside the cell is called a cell organelle. It has a particular structural makeup and performs a specific function. Depending upon the presence or absence of membrane, cell organelles can be classified into three categories, namely:

  • Without membrane: Some cell organelles like ribosomes are not bounded by any membrane. They are present in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic organisms.
  • Single membrane-bound: Some organelles are bounded by a single membrane. For example, vacuole, lysosome, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum etc. They are present only in a eukaryotic cell.
  • Double membrane-bound: Cell organelles like mitochondria and chloroplast are double membrane-bound organelles. They are present only in a eukaryotic cell.

Download Cell Organelle Cheat Sheet by clicking on the button below
Cell- Introduction

Browse more Topics under The Fundamental Unit Of Life

Learn more about Cell Division and Cell Cycle here.

Structure and Functions of Cells

Structure and functions of different cell inclusions are as follows-



Cell Organelle Occurrence/ Characteristic & Structure Function
Cell Membrane/ Plasma Membrane
  • Present in both plant cell and animal cell.
  • Selectively Permeable: Allows the materials in and out of the cell according to the requirement of the cell.

  • Made up of bilipid layer and protein (Fluid Mosaic Model)
  • Encloses the contents of the cell.
  • Provides shape: animal cell.
  • Allows transport: by Diffusion and Osmosis.
Cell Wall
  • Present only in a plant cell.
  • Hard and rigid.
  • Fully permeable.
  • Made up of Cellulose in plant and peptidoglycan in bacteria.
  • Protection
  • Gives shape and turgidity.
  • Contains 80-90% water and many organic and inorganic compounds.
  • Colloidal, Viscous, Jelly like fluid inside the cell.
  • Contains enzymes responsible for all the metabolic activity taking place inside the cell.


(Director/ Brain of the Cell)


  • Covered by a double membranous nuclear membrane in a Eukaryotic Cell.
  • Contains DNA, RNA, Protein, nucleolus, and Chromatin network.

  • Controls the activity of the cell.
  • Starts cell division.
  • It has the chromosomes or DNA which controls the hereditary characters
Mitochondria (The Power House of The Cell / Storage Batteries)
  • Double membranous structure.
  • Autonomous body as contains its own DNA.
  • Self-duplicates
  • The main seat of respiration.
  • Stores energy in the form of ATP molecules.

Golgi Bodies

(Shipping Department of Cell)

  • Discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898.
  • Originates from RER.
  • Contains Sac like Cisternae and Vesicles.
  • Has two faces – cis face or receiving face and trans face or supplying face.


  • Modification, Packaging, and transport of materials
  • Synthesis of lysosomes, plasma membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum

(Framework of Cell)

  • A network of membranes.
  • RER bears ribosomes and appears rough
  • SER does not have ribosomes

  • Forms the skeletal framework of the cell.
  • Transport of materials from one cell to other.
  • Provides a surface for the synthesis of material – Proteins in RER and Lipids in SER.
  • Formation of lysosomes, Golgi bodies and vacuoles
  • Membrane Biogenesis
  • Detoxification of harmful substances in the liver.
  • Arise from ER and GB
  • Surrounded by tonoplast and filled with cell sap


  • Store cell sap which may be liquid or solid food, toxic byproduct.
  • Provide rigidity and turgidity to plant cell


Lysosomes (Suicidal bags of Cell, natural scavenger, cellular housekeeper)
  • Membrane-bound organelles
  • Present in all animal cells and few plant cells
  • Tiny circular single membrane-bound structures filled with digestive enzymes
  • Intracellular digestion of food in unicellular organisms.


Ribosomes (Protein Factories)
  • Without a membrane
  • Consist of two subunits – 60S and 40S in eukaryote both made up of RNA

  • Synthesis of Proteins
  • Double membrane-bound


  1. Leucoplast –Colourless plastid;
  2. Chromoplast –Coloured Plastid – blue, red, yellow
  3. Chloroplast – Green plastid
  • Autonomous self-duplicating body

  • Chloroplast – Perform Photosynthesis – Helps in the release of oxygen
  • Chromoplast – impart colour to flowers which help in pollination
  • Leucoplast – Storage
  • Amyloplast –Store starch
  • Aleuroplast – Store Protein
  • Elaioplast – Store fat



Learn more about Prokaryotic Cell here.

Solved Exercise

Question 1: Write the name of different plant parts in which chromoplast, chloroplast and leucoplast are present.


  • Chloroplast are present in green parts of the plant like leaves, the stem of cactus, raw mango fruit etc
  • Chromoplast are present in colourful parts of the plant like flowers, fruits etc
  • Leucoplast is present in parts not exposed to sunlight like roots, potato etc.

Question 2: Name the organelles which show the analogy written as under


  1. Transporting channels of the cell—— Endoplasmic Reticulum
  2. Powerhouse of the cell—— Mitochondria
  3. Packaging and dispatching unit of the cell—— Golgi Body
  4. Digestive bag of the cell—— Lysosomes
  5. Storage sacs of the cell—— Vacuole
  6. Kitchen of the cell—— Chloroplast
  7. Control room of the cell—— Nucleus
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10 responses to “Cell Organelle”

  1. Hemantha says:

    Nice work and Helpful >any thanks for your contribution.

  2. Tanna says:

    Very much helpful people are intimated with this

  3. Nagaraju says:

    Function of golgi body is produces the energy to cell

    • hrishikesh nooli says:

      no it works as packaging unit of cell where proteins or lipids synthesized are modified and packed in form of vesicles and are transported within cell or outside

  4. Yogesh kapale says:

    Hi everyone

  5. Captain singh says:

    This is too much knowledgeable PDF
    Thank U for that…

  6. Prachi kolwalkar says:

    Very helpful

  7. Harshita Jain says:

    👍🏼ReallyHelpful…Thanks lottt😊

  8. susan kayuka says:

    The contents were very helpful

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