As we all know, the growth and reproduction of organisms happen via cell division. Similarly, the new cells are produced in eukaryotic cells because of mitosis and meiosis. Further, the nuclear division processes of mitosis and meiosis are quite similar but also very distinct. Thus, it becomes important to know the difference between mitosis and meiosis to clear your basic concepts. Moreover, cell division is extremely regulated and follows a very orchestrated sequence of steps. Thus, we see how mitosis and meiosis are two different types of nuclear division. Both of these processes involve the division of a diploid cell. Now, let’s learn further about them in detail.
Definition of Mitosis
The genetic material (DNA) in a cell duplicates and divides equally between two cells in mitosis. After that, the dividing cell will go through a structured sequence of events known as the cell cycle. Further, the presence of specific growth factors or other signals indicating the requirement of production of new cells initiates the mitotic cell cycle. In addition, through mitosis, the body’s somatic cells replicate. For instance, somatic cells incorporate fat cells, skin cells, blood cells or any body cell which are not sex cells. Moreover, the body needs mitosis in order to replace dead cells, damaged cells or cell having shorter life spans.
Definition of Meiosis
Meiosis refers to the process in which gametes (sex cells) generate in organisms that reproduce sexually. In order to understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis, we must learn what they actually mean. Thus, as you know, gametes produce in male and female gonads and comprise of one-half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Moreover, the genetic recombination that takes place during the course of meiosis helps in introducing new gene combinations in a population. Hence, the meiotic cell cycle produces four cells which are genetically different as opposed to the two genetically identical cells which mitosis produces.
Difference Between Mitosis And Meiosis
Important Difference Between Mitosis And Meiosis
|Basis of Comparison||Mitosis||Meiosis|
|Meaning||It refers to the cell division that forms two daughter cells each with the same number and type of chromosomes as the parent cell.||It refers to the cell division which forms four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.|
|Type of Reproduction||It is asexual||It is sexual|
|Number of Divisions||One||Two|
|Mother cells||They can either be haploid or diploid||They are always diploid|
|Number of Chromosome||They remain the same||They reduce by half|
|Crossing Over||Crossing over does not occur||Mixing of chromosomes occurs|
|Pairing of Homologs||It does not happen||It takes place|
|Function||General growth and repair and reproduction of cells||Genetic diversity through sexual reproduction|
|Creation||Creates everything except sex cells||Creates sex cells only|
|Discoverer||Walther Flemming||Oscar Hertwig|
|Occurrence||Takes place in somatic cells||Takes place in germ cells|
More details about Mitosis
Mitosis is a continuous procedure of division of cells occurring in all types of living cells. In here, the division of cell happens through asexual production. Moreover, we see how the nuclear membrane breaks down.
Further, the steps of Mitosis comprise of Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Moreover, no synapsis occurs in here and its function is to partake in healing in repair.
More details about Meiosis
Meiosis refers to when daughter cells produce. Thus, we see that the only cells undergoing meiosis turn into sperm or eggs. Moreover, the meiosis comprises of meiosis I and meiosis II.
Further, the homologous chromosome separates into different nuclei in meiosis I. On the other hand, in meiosis II, the chromatids separate into separate nuclei.
FAQs about Mitosis And Meiosis
Question 1: What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis in terms of discoverer?
Answer 1: Walther Flemming discovered mitosis whereas Oscar Hertwig discovered meiosis.
Question 2: How are the mother cells different in mitosis and meiosis?
Answer 2: In mitosis, mother cells can either be haploid or diploid. On the other hand, in meiosis, the mother cells are always diploid.
Question 3: What is the type of reproduction in mitosis and meiosis?
Answer 3: In mitosis, it is asexual whereas, in meiosis, it is sexual in nature.