The key difference between enzymes and hormones is that enzymes are the catalyst that escalates the metabolic reaction rate and its specificity. It is a protein with unique 3-dimensional structures acting as biocatalysts. Hormones, on the other side, are chemicals which when let out in the one part of the human body by cell or gland will send signals or messages to other parts and functions of the body. It is also known as Chemical messenger.
Let us see the difference in more detail.
Enzymes vs Hormones – Difference Between Enzymes and Hormones
|1.||Definition||Enzymes are Biological catalysts that increase the speed of biochemical reactions without any changes.||Hormones are molecules like steroids (testosterone/estrogen) or peptides (insulin) produced by a part of an organism and send messages to other organs or tissues for cellular reactions.|
|2.||Chemical Name||Biological Catalyst||Chemical Messengers|
|3.||Molecular weight||Macromolecules, always high molecule weight.||Hormones have comparatively low molecular weight than enzymes.|
|4.||Activity Performed||Performs at the place of origin i.e in the cell.||Performs at some distance i.e target organ from glands.|
|5.||Reutilization||Enzymes can be reused.||Hormones cannot be reused.|
|6.||Formation||Formation is in exocrine glands||Formation is in endocrine glands.|
|7.||Specifications||It depends on functions performed by the substrate.||It depends on positive and negative feedback by target cells.|
|8.||Circulatory System||Intracellular or some ducts||Blood Stream.|
|Generally Proteins||Polypeptides, Steroids, Amines.|
|10.||Producer Cells||Salivary glands, cells in the stomach, pancreas, and glands in the small intestine.||Pituitary glands, Thyroid glands, Thymus glands, Adrenal glands, Pancreas.|
|11.||Translocation||No translocation||Shows polar translocation|
|12.||Reacting Time||Enzymes react quickly||Some hormones react quickly while some react slow.|
|14.||Concentration||Reaction increases with an increase in concentration.||Deficiency or excess production leads to disease.|
|15.||Function||To increase the rate of a biochemical reaction.||Passing signals from one cell to another or from one organ to another.|
|16.||Dependency||Enzymes depends on the message from hormones.||Hormones do not depend on enzymes.|
|17.||Variations||Enzyme do not change with age. Hormone changes with age.||As humans grow old few hormones appear while few disappear.|
|18.||Diseases||Mostly due to insufficient production.||Due to excess or insufficient production.|
|20.||Example||Oxidases, Hydrolases, Isomerase.||Testosterone, Estrogen, Cortisol, Oxytocin.|
Enzymes are proteins with unique three-dimensional structures that act as biocatalysts. It is recently recognized that some enzymes lose the ability to carry out biological catalysis during evolution, this study is known as enzymology. The lost ability of enzymes reflects in their amino acids during evolution. Enzymes act as a catalyst and help in regulating biological processes in living organisms, more than 5000 biochemical reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. Almost all metabolic processes need enzymes catalysis in the cell.
In humans, the deficiency of enzymes results in many diseases such as albinism and phenylketonuria. Enzymes are also used in wine fermentation, beer brewing, curdling of cheese. Medical usage of enzymes includes digestive enzymes syrups, killing microorganisms diseases, healing wounds, and many more.
Functions of Enzymes
Enzymes helps in breakdown and digestion of large nutrition molecules such as Protein, Carbohydrates, Fats into small molecules, so that body can use them as fuel.
Enzymes have inorganic elements, vitamins which helps them in any action performed. They work as prosthetic groups. Whereas, hormones do not have such prosthetic groups. The production of enzymes occurs due to the stimulation process.
Enzymes help in increasing the rate of metabolic physiological processes. They help in metabolic reactions too such as digestion. The main function is to attack the substrate because the function of enzymes depends on the presence of the substrate.
Enzymes take part in the metabolism and help in the breakdown of nutritional foods. The regulation of enzymes works under strict conditions of pH and temperature in the body. The reaction rates are controlled by a specific inhibitor molecule. The life of enzymes are limited but the functions are essential.
A hormone is a chemical or signaling molecule released into the bloodstreams to circulate the message to different organs of the body. It is also known as “chemical messenger“. This helps the organs and tissues of the body to function according to the message.
Hormones help in the communication between tissues and activities such as tissue functions, digestion, sleep, metabolism, stress indications, respiration, excretion, reproduction, mood manipulations, growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, and thirst. These are found in multicellular organisms as they are produced by glands in multicellular organisms.
Hormones are used for two way communications.
First is between two endocrine glands to change the level of hormones that are releasing. In this, the function of the endocrine gland is to release a hormone that sends a message to the target gland.
Endocrine Gland Includes
- Pituitary gland
- Adrenal gland
The second is between the endocrine gland and target organs. In this, the function of the endocrine gland is to release a hormone that sends a message to the target organ.
For example, the pancreas (endocrine gland) will release insulin (hormone) to send a message to the target organ and helps muscles and fat cells to take glucose from the bloodstream.
It takes a very small amount or microscopic amount of hormone secretion by organs to bring major changes in the body. Even a slight deficiency or excess amount of hormones can lead to disease.
The actions performed by hormones are either excitatory or inhibitory. Hormones are involved in sexual development and reproduction, regulation of heat and energy available in the body, organs and tissues growth and development, internal balance of water and ions concentration.
It acts as a stimulating agent. The main function is to attack cells or tissues because the function depends on positive and negative feedback. They help in regulations of morphogenesis such as secondary sex characteristics. Hormones are always controlled by the brain or other external factors of the body as well as other special inhibitor hormones. They have functions to control physiology, body growth, and reproduction.