Genes are responsible for the development of the DNA structure and all the genetic traits that a human body has. It is known as the most basic and functional unit of heredity. Every human, carry two copies of each gene. It is known as an Allele. One allele is carried out from each parent. These alleles are responsible for the variations and uniqueness of each individual. The dissimilar variations of a particular gene are known as an allele. Let us understand the key difference between Gene and Allele.
Difference Between Gene And Allele
|Definition||Gene is defined as a section of DNA that encodes for a certain trait.||An allele is defined as a variant form of a gene.|
|Determines||It determines an organism’s genotype.||It determines an organism’s phenotype.|
|Types||An allele is a type of gene.||Alleles are of two types; Paternal vs maternal
Dominant vs recessive
|Role||The role of genes is to determine individual traits.||The role of alleles is to contribute the diversity in phenotype expression.|
|Examples||Eye color, skin pigmentation, hair color.||Dark skin, blue eyes, brown hair.|
Genes are defined as the sections of DNA that determine certain attributes or characteristics of a particular human. Genes encode for proteins that impact things like hormone production, skin pigmentation, immune system, and eye color.
The genotype of an organism includes its entire set of genes. Genes come into from an offspring’s parents. They are responsible for features passing from one generation to the next. Every human carries a unique genotype, which is responsible for the vast variety in appearance and biology.
When genes mutation occurs, they take on different multiple forms. In this process, each form differs slightly in the sequence of their base DNA. These gene variants are still encoded for the same trait as hair color, but there is a difference in the expression of the trait i.e. brown hair vs blonde hair. This difference in the versions of the same gene is known as alleles.
Genes consist of two or more possible alleles. Individual humans carry two alleles, or different versions, of every gene. As humans consist of two gene variants for each gene, we are said to be a diploid organism.
The diversity in the heritable trait depends upon the number of potential alleles. As the number of potential alleles increases, the more diversity takes place in a given heritable trait. An incredible number of genes and gene formation undergoes in human genetic diversity. This is the reason which brings the difference in every individual and makes people different from each other.
For example, an eye color. Let’s assume that there is only one gene that encodes for eye color. As there are multiple genes responsible for the most physical traits. Brown, blue, green, and hazel eyes are each encoded by unique alleles. The expression of eye color is decided by the pair of alleles present on an individual’s chromosomes.
Genes And Alleles Inheritance
When humans undergo reproduction, the child obtains 23 chromosomes from each parent. Each matching chromosome pair carries the same set of genes, with unique genes present at certain spots known as the gene locus.
This inheritance describes that individuals consist of two gene copies for a given trait. One gene copy is inherited from their mother while the other one is inherited from their father. These gene copies are said to be maternal and paternal alleles. This allele interaction is responsible for unique characteristics.
Dominant Gene And Recessive Gene
The genotype is defined as the total number of genes encoded on the 46 chromosomes of a human. But this does not mean that all the gene variations will be expressed. For example, a person might have one allele for brown eyes and another for blue eyes, but that person will not have one blue and one brown eye.
Individuals do not exhibit the characteristics encrypted on each matching pair of genes. Rather, the genes that are exhibited result in the phenotype, which is how genes are expressed in observable characteristics.
Every individual carries two copies, or alleles, or a single gene. When there are similar alleles present, they are known as homozygotes. When there are different alleles present, they are said to be heterozygotes.
Homozygotes code for the same trait, for example, blue eyes. If an individual carries two blue eye alleles, the eyes will be blue. But if a person has one allele for blue eyes and another for brown eyes, the eye color will be decided by the dominant allele.
A dominant allele is described as one that always determines the phenotype. On the other side, a recessive allele is described as one that does not indicate any traits when it is paired with a dominant allele.