Many important MOUs were signed in the year 2016. This section is fairly new in the course of many exams but the candidates should have a close and firm knowledge of the different MOUs signed by India with other countries and among various departments. Let us see some of Important MOUs – 2016.
Important MOUs – 2016
MOUs are a way of guessing and predicting the policies of a country. A ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ is also known as an ‘MOU’. MOUs are generally used to document a relationship of goodwill between the parties to the MOU. MOUs are generally not legally binding (however note that an MOU may be legally binding if it satisfies all of the six elements of a Contract).
Similar to a contract, a memorandum of understanding is an agreement between two or more parties. Unlike a contract, however, an MOU need not contain legally enforceable promises. While the parties to a contract must intend to create a legally binding agreement, the parties to an MOU may intend otherwise. Here are some of the most important MOUs that affect the policies in many fields. Let us see.
1. Canada for Defence cooperation.
2. The United States of America – To promote closer co-operation and exchange of information pertaining to the Cyber Security.
3. Fiji – Defence cooperation, military training and humanitarian assistance & disaster management.
5. Bangladesh – Defence Cooperation, Peaceful Use of Outer Space, Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Establishing Border Haats Across the Border, Cooperation in the Field of Mass Media.
6. Australia – Combating International Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime, Cooperation in the Field of Health and Medicine, Sports, in the Field of Environment, Climate and Wildlife, Cooperation in Civil Aviation Security.
7. Palestine – Visa Exemption on Diplomatic and Official Passports, Cooperation in the field of sports, Agricultural Cooperation, Health sector.
8. Spain – cyber security and technical cooperation in civil aviation, Transfer of Sentenced Persons, Cooperation in organ transplantation, Cooperation in Renewable Energy, Visa waiver for holders of diplomatic passports.
9. Russia – cultural exchanges for a period of two years (2017-2019), for the construction of the third stage of the Kudankulam NPP (KK5 & KK6), implementation of the high-speed service at the Nagpur-Secunderabad section.
10. Saudi Arabia – Labour Cooperation for Recruitment of workers, Executive Program for Cooperation in the field of Handicrafts, Money Laundering, Terrorism Financing and Related Crimes, Framework for Investment Promotion Cooperation.
11. The Maldives – To avoid double taxation of income derived from international air transports. Exchange of information with respect to taxes. Orbit Frequency Coordination of “South Asia Satellite” at 48oE. In the area of conservation and restoration of ancient mosques and joint research and exploratory surveys in the Maldives. Cooperation in the field of tourism. MoU for defence cooperation.
12. Oman – Defence Cooperation. Marine Crime Prevention at Sea. Cooperation in the field of Maritime Issues. Flight Safety Information Exchange.
13. Iran – Development of Chabahar Port in Iran. Cooperation in India-Iran-Afghanistan Trilateral Agreement Letter of Credit for Chabahar Port -in the field of mines; the cooperation in foreign trade and investment Extension of Cultural Exchange Program till 2019. Cooperation on Archival Matters.
14. Qatar – For the promotion of investments. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance in Customs Matters. Exchange of intelligence related to money laundering, terrorist financing and related crimes. Concerning the skilled workers. Cooperation in Tourism. The Cooperation in the field of Health. Cooperation in the field of Youth and Sports.
15. Myanmar – cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Cooperation in the construction of 69 bridges. cooperation in the field of Traditional Systems of Medicine Construction and up gradation of the Kalewa – Yagi Road Section.
16. Ghana – Visa waivers for holders of diplomatic passports. Setting up a Joint Commission between the two countries on various matters. Civil Nuclear Cooperation by India to Ghana.
17. Vietnam – Cooperation in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space. Amending the Agreement on Avoiding Double Taxation Program of Cooperation in UN Peacekeeping Matters. Health Cooperation. Cooperation in Information Technology. Cooperation in the field of Social Sciences. cooperation in Cyber Security Establishing Centre of Excellence in Software Development and Training. Sharing of White Shipping Information. The contract for Offshore High-speed Patrol Boats.
18. Chile – the extension of the existing MoU relating to India–Chile Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA).
19. Japan – Cooperation for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. Manufacturing Skill Transformation Program Cooperation in the field of Outer Space. Collaboration in Marine, Earth Science and Technology. Field of Agriculture and Food Related Industries. Field of Cultural Exchange. Disaster Management and Environment Protection.
20. Vietnam – Civil Nuclear Cooperation. Aviation links. Energy efficiency. Promotion of parliamentary cooperation.
21. Portugal – Defence Renewable Energy. Marine Research and Resources. Agriculture and Allied Sectors. Information Technology and Electronics. Establishment of an Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) Chair of Indian Studies in University of Lisbon.
Q 1: What have India and Vietnam not agreed upon, from the following?
A) Cooperation in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space.
B) Amending the Agreement on Avoiding Double Taxation Program of Cooperation in UN Peacekeeping Matters.
C) Visa Exemption on Diplomatic and Official Passports, Cooperation in the field of sports, Agricultural Cooperation, Health sector.
D) Both B) and C)
Ans: C) Visa Exemption on Diplomatic and Official Passports, Cooperation in the field of sports, Agricultural Cooperation, Health sector.